IJHSR | Issue 1 | Volume 1

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p.6 “Is There Anybody Out There?” Gamma Ray Bursts and the Fermi Paradox

Susana Weber and Luis Anchordoqui


p. 14 Boundary-Layer Flow Dynamics Concerning Forward Swept Wings

Arjay R. Mirchandani
Abstract: Air travel has two major issues; plane crashes caused by loss of control and its contribution to pollution. Aircrafts could employ a new wing orientation, forward swept wings, which would increase the effectiveness of the rear wing set, thereby increasing the control given to the pilot. Other studies suggest that forward swept wings are more efficient than the contemporary rear swept wings. If aircrafts became more efficient, then they could fly the same distance without consuming as much fuel, thereby decreasing air pollution emissions. This experiment measured the efficiency ratio (lift-to-drag ratio) as a proxy for fuel efficiency. I utilized force sensors to measure lift (upward force) and drag (frictional force) on 3D printed wing models in order to create the efficiency ratio (lift/drag). This ratio, in turn, allows for comparisons of efficiency concerning differing sweep orientations. It was found that forward swept wings were more efficient than rear swept wings at subsonic speeds. This warrants future research concerning the fuel efficiency of forward swept wings at varying speeds and angles of attack in direct comparison with rear swept wings.


p. 24 Use of Chitin in Industrial Effluent Plants

Sarah W. Ferdousi and Antara Fairu
Abstract: Chitin is a biopolymer found in abundance all around us: in the cuticles of insects, shells of crustaceans such as shrimp, crabs etc. Many tonnes of shells are produced annually around the world. Bangladesh is a developing country in South Asia. Its much prominent textile industry has resulted in liquid waste being dumped into surrounding water bodies for many years, leading to widespread pollution. Through our study, it has been seen that chitin absorbs heavy metal ions, namely Pb2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ which are found in abundance in industrial effluent, ultimately resulting in water which performs better in qualitative and quantitative tests. We intend to introduce chitin as a measure to reduce this pollution through its use in Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETP) to purify river water as a cheap and environmentally friendly alternative to the harsh chemicals. Chitin can be relatively easily extracted from crustacean shells. We aim to clean the environment, one ion at a time.


p. 30 Study of Carbon Nanotube Epoxy Resin Coated Carbon Unidirectional Fiber Fabric in Radiation Shielding

Kaylee M. Cunningham
Abstract: This experiment was conducted in an effort to advance technology used to better protect humans from ionizing gamma radiation, emitted from a small uranium-235 sample encased in glass. The goal in performing this study was to determine if carbon nanotube epoxy resin coated carbon unidirectional fabric would prove effective in reducing the amount of ionizing radiation that would penetrate a normal cotton bra. Carbon nanotube epoxy resin is epoxy infused with small, graphite-like tubes. Carbon unidirectional fiber fabric is material made out of carbon fibers woven parallel
to each other. Carbon’s crystal-lattice molecular structure makes it naturally strong. By creating nanotubes out of this material, it becomes lightweight and remains strong and highly conductive; thus, a combination of carbon nanotube epoxy resin and carbon fiber fabric was predicted to shield radiation. The carbon fibers and carbon nanotubes reflect radiation, while the polymers of the epoxy absorb radiation. To test this, an ionization chamber was built out of a soup can to measure changing voltage through various materials: a test was performed with no cover to collect a control reading, aluminum foil, cotton, and carbon nanotube coated carbon unidirectional fabric were tested. The ionization chamber measured a 44% radiation reduction for the encased uranium sample. For more accurate results, the experiment was reconducted with a Geiger counter. The experiment was replicated and included testing a doublelayer carbon unidirectional fabric coated in carbon nanotube epoxy resin, as well as an uncoated piece of carbon unidirectional fabric. Consequently, carbon unidirectional fiber fabric alone resulted in a 33% radiation penetration reduction. The single layer fabric resulted in a 55% radiation penetration reduction. The double layer fabric resulted in a 72% reduction rate. The foil had a 7% reduction, the cotton fabric had a 14% reduction, and the uncoated fabric had a 33% reduction. According to these results, the carbon nanotube epoxy resin coated carbon unidirectional fiber fabric was effective in significantly reducing radiation penetration rates.


p. 45 Evaluation of Recombinant Cytotoxins for the Therapy of CNS Tumors in Experimental Mouse Models

Shrila T. Shah
Abstract: Malignant brain tumors, continue to be the cause of a disproportionate level of mortality, killing over 17,000 people each year. For metastasis, blood vessels are constructed (angiogenesis) to provide cancerous tissue with nutrients/oxygen. Blocking this would prevent the supply of factors essential for tumor growth. Angiogenesis is controlled by a balance of pro and anti-angiogenic factors in endothelial cells. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key proangiogenic molecule that can be targeted with small molecule inhibitors such as Sunitinib, which have demonstrated, with some success, down regulation of tumor angiogenesis. However, benefits are often transitory, followed by restoration of tumor progression. The goal of this study was to determine if introducing an SLT-VEGF fusion protein would selectively target VEGFR-2 being overexpressed in vasculature, preventing “rebound” of vessel angiogenesis. SLT-VEGF is comprised of the subunit A Shiga-like toxin, which binds to VEGFR-2, inhibiting protein synthesis in cells. Cell lines glioma and glioblastoma were grown in flanks of nude mice as model systems to analyze the effects of treatment with Sunitinib (followed by growth without treatment), and SLT-VEGF (followed by growth without treatment). Cyrosections were prepared for immunohistochemical staining to assess the degree of angiogenesis. Results showed that SLT-VEGF treatment significantly blocked the rebound of new blood vessel formation around the tumor.



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