Basalt as an alternative to limestone in the production of Portland cement

Sophia L. Shapiro

Vol. 1, Issue 2, p 17-20 (2019)

https://doi.org/10.36838/v1i2.4

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ABSTRACT: A wide range of environmental consequences will occur due to anthropogenic climate change caused by carbon dioxide emissions.¹ Cement production accounts for 6% of these carbon emissions, releasing around 2.25 x 109 tons of carbon dioxide annually.² When limestone is heated, it emits CO₂ into the atmosphere through a process called calcination, due to the prevalence of calcium carbonate.³ Scientists are aware of this problem, however there is no sign that the cement industry will change. Cement is the primary ingredient in concrete, and concrete is the second most consumed substance on Earth after water.⁴ This paper proposes the use of basalt as the primary ingredient in the production of Portland cement. Through the synthesis of cement with basalt and following calculations, the following paper concluded that if limestone were substituted for basalt, 3.9375 x 10⁸ metric tons of CO₂ would be saved. These findings support the thesis that using basalt as the primary ingredient in cement would be a viable comfortable conservation solution.
KEYWORDS: Climate change; Carbon dioxide; Cement; Basalt; Calcination; Hydration